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A quick makeover is possible with a dental veneer! This ultra-thin material is expensive, so you'll want to take care of it so it lasts for years to come. Porcelain veneers are engineered to resist practically everything your normal teeth can handle. If they're cared for carefully, you can enjoy the benefits of your veneers for anywhere from 10 to 15 years!

So, what can you do to ensure that your porcelain veneers continue to brighten your smile for years to come? You'll learn everything you need to know about maintaining and caring for this dental fix from these instructions.

Take Care of Your Dental Health

Whatever the reason you opted to have a veneer, it's not a miraculous fix for your mouth. To get the most out of your veneer, you still need to practice good dental hygiene.

Dental veneers correct small faults and imperfections to give you the smile makeover you deserve. If your natural teeth were already discolored, cracked, or chipped owing to inadequate dental care, you'll have to change your habits. Your veneer won't last as long if you don't take care of it.

Taking good care of your teeth and gums is an important part of overall health. Use a soft-bristled toothbrush and non-abrasive toothpaste to keep your teeth clean. The best way to keep gum disease from happening is to brush and floss your teeth at least twice a day.

Ask Before Trying Whitening Products

Talk to your dental professional before you use whitening toothpaste to be sure it won't affect the veneer surface. Baking soda, sodium bicarbonate, or hydrogen peroxide are common ingredients in these solutions.

Custom-made shells were created for you based on your skin tone and preferences. Your fresh smile may be harmed if you whiten your teeth.

Watch What You Eat and Drink

Veneers made of porcelain or composite resin are extremely durable and stain-resistant. However, this does not imply that they are impenetrable. A veneer can be discolored by the application of a stain.

Eat and drink sensibly in order to keep your veneers in good condition. Staining chemicals are present in many foods and beverages, resulting in the discoloration of your natural teeth.

Staining and Hard Foods Are a No-Go

Any discoloration, regardless of whether it's on your veneer or the teeth around it, will take away from the brilliance of your smile. Soy sauce, red wine, black drinks, and other stain-generating foods should be avoided because they can discolor your veneer.

The veneer on your teeth might potentially be damaged if you come into contact with a harsh item. When eating hard foods like raw apples, carrots, or celery, take care not to choke. Even with your genuine teeth, you should avoid chewing on ice. Unlike veneers, your enamel can crack if you wear veneers.

Quit Negative Habits

When it comes to your smile's appearance, what you eat and drink, and your behaviors, all have an impact. Smoking will quickly deteriorate your veneers. Tobacco cessation is something that you've already decided to do. Composite resin or porcelain veneers provide this demand with a new urgency.

Smoking can discolor the surface of a veneer much like it does your natural teeth. For the sake of your beautiful smile, you'll have to do the hard work of giving up unhealthy habits.

Teeth deterioration and surface discoloration can also be caused by excessive alcohol consumption. Make an appointment with your dentist and tell him or her about your worries. You never know if they have some basic ideas or solutions that have worked for others.

Use a Mouth Guard if You Need One

A bonding agent is used to secure dental veneers in place. The bonding line might be shifted and the veneer has thrown out of place if you grind your teeth or get smacked in the mouth. If there isn't any additional damage, it can be reset, although it's preferable to stay away from it in the first place.

As a result, some people with veneers should also wear mouth guards. Talk to your dentist if you play contact sports frequently or suffer from bruxism (grinding) and let them know about your lifestyle.

They'll be able to teach you how to properly care for veneers, treat teeth grinding and its causes, and suggest solutions. An occlusal guard or bite guard can help protect your teeth and dental implants from getting hurt when you bite or chew.

Even if you're unaware of it, grinding your teeth subconsciously can cause a significant amount of harm. Wear a mouth guard to protect your healthy teeth from erosion and damage. Sports guards are also useful for protecting your teeth in the event of a collision with your jaw, mouth, or face.

Make Time for Routine Cleanings and Exams

Finally, regular cleanings and examinations will help your dental veneers last much longer. If you can't reach the germs, tartar, and plaque buildup that the dental hygienist has, she can. Using the right toothpaste and brush is good, but it doesn't compare to having your teeth cleaned by someone who has been trained and has the right tools and techniques.

By visiting the dentist on a regular basis, you can avoid more serious conditions like gum disease or tooth decay. Your natural teeth will be healthier if you address any issues with your dental hygiene as soon as possible. Your porcelain veneers will last much longer if you do this.

Keeping Your Dental Veneers and Natural Teeth Healthy Is Our Goal!

Your veneers will last longer if you take good care of them at home. With the correct toothpaste and toothbrush, brushing your teeth twice a day or more is a good first step. People who floss and use antiseptic mouthwash can get rid of any bacteria that might have slipped through the gaps.

Your veneers will last longer if you keep your mouth in good shape. Visiting the dentist on a regular basis is critical to maintaining good dental health. Your dentist is trained to spot early signs of gingivitis or periodontitis, as well as any problems with the veneers you have.

Find a dentist you can rely on to keep an eye on your oral health when you're away from the office. As a team, we can ensure that your veneers will last for many years to come!

Preventative care is an important component of overall wellness. You can go to the doctor for physicals and annual blood tests, but if you don't get regular dental checkups, you're missing out on an important aspect of healthcare.

Many patients do not visit the dentist until they have a problem because they do not have quality dental care monitoring their oral health.

By that point, what could have been a simple fix has become more complicated and frequently necessitates sedation dentistry to repair.

Defining the Terms in Sedation Dentistry

Sedation is a medical term that refers to any method of treatment that helps patients relax. Sedation techniques in each field are typically similar.

They can range from general anesthesia to minimal sedation, which keeps the patient awake and alert, to deep sedation, which renders the patient completely unconscious.

Why Sedation is Necessary

If your dentist recommends sedation as part of your dental treatment, there's a reason for it. Sedation is not used for every procedure. It's a safe and effective way to get through something that would otherwise cause discomfort or pain.

Without Sedatives, You Could Injure Yourself

Without sedation, your natural instincts are to jerk and pull away, making the dentist's job more difficult and possibly causing you harm.

The Basics of Sedation

There are several types of sedation dentistry available, and your dentist will go over them with you. The level of sedation required is determined by a variety of factors, including your medical history and the dental procedures you are about to undergo.

Dentists must undergo additional training to provide sedation, and it is only used when a topical anesthetic is insufficient.

Unconscious Versus Conscious Sedation

The majority of people's apprehension about sedation stems from stories and myths. Let's go over the various reasons for dental sedation and when each type is appropriate.

Local Anesthesia

A local anesthetic is the first level of sedation that dentists consider. This is typically used when patients have dental issues as a result of things like cavities, crown placement or adjustment, and root planing and scaling.

Local anesthesia allows you to remain conscious and alert. It numbs the area that needs to be worked on. The numbness usually lasts between 30 minutes and an hour.

Topical or Injectable Applications

This is administered as a topical gel rubbed on the gums or as an injection into the gum area. When you feel numb, it's time to begin the dental procedures on your schedule.

General Anesthesia

General anesthesia can help when stronger pain control is required or a patient has dental anxiety about the procedure. The patient is completely relaxed and unconscious during this method of sedation dentistry.

Dentists frequently recommend this type of sedation for lengthy procedures and dental work that requires precision. Complex dental treatments are easier to perform because the patient is completely unconscious throughout the procedure.

Your dentist may also recommend this type of sedation for other reasons. For example, if your anxiety is so severe that you can't sit still for a cavity sealant, or if you have a medical condition that prevents you from using other sedation methods, general anesthetics can help.

Types of General Anesthesia

The majority of types of general anesthesia are administered by experienced dentists via IV sedation or a face mask. Throughout the procedure, the anesthetic is steadily controlled. When you fall asleep, you will relax in the dental chair and breathe through a special tube.

For procedures such as wisdom tooth removal or tooth extraction, general anesthesia is frequently recommended.

Is a General Anesthetic Right For You?

This type of sedation, however, is not appropriate for people who have neurological issues, acid reflux, or organ diseases. If you have previously had an allergic reaction to an anesthetic, inform your dentist so that your sedation can be adjusted accordingly.

Nitrous Oxide Sedation

Nitrous oxide, as opposed to IV moderate sedation, is an inhaled minimal sedation technique. If your anxiety is high or you don't want to deal with an IV, this dental sedation, also known as laughing gas, is a quick fix.

Inhale oxygen mixed with nitrous oxide through a mask. The balance of the gases is maintained throughout the procedure to ensure that you remain unconscious. If you have a low pain threshold and the medication wears off too quickly, the dentist will be aware and will increase the laughing gas.

Most patients are unaware they have had the procedure until it is completed. They may feel sleepy or lose consciousness immediately after inhaling the laughing gas. When you stop inhaling it, the gas loses its potency and you become alert again.

Oral Sedation

Oral sedatives are an option if the procedure does not require you to be unconscious or if you are anxious about it. With these drugs, you'll be sedated for several hours, long enough for the dentist to complete the entire treatment.

The majority of dentists use Halcion, a Valium-like medication. An hour before your procedure, you will take your oral medication. Within that time, you'll feel completely relaxed and drowsy. You will, however, be able to respond to instructions and questions.

Oral sedative medication provides moderate relaxation and pain relief. This makes oral conscious sedation an excellent choice for a wide range of dental procedures, including root canals. However, unlike laughing gas, it does not wear off quickly. After the dental procedure, you may require the assistance of another person to drive you home.

IV Sedation

IV application is the only type of sedation that can put you into deep sedation that all but the most aggressive actions can't break. The IV drip contains the same drugs as the oral sedation. However, if you want to be unconscious to avoid dental anxiety or if you have a weak gag reflex, moderate sedation is insufficient.

After you've fallen asleep, the dentist will monitor your vital signs and adjust your medication as needed.

Make an Appointment to Talk About Your Options

Don't let your fear of sedation dentistry prevent you from getting your dental health issues addressed. Make an appointment with your dentist to discuss the various sedation options available to you.

Remember that whether you require moderate oral sedation, deep sedation, or something else is determined by a number of factors. You might be putting "worst-case scenario" options in your head when they aren't necessary.

Feel free to bring a list of questions and concerns to your appointment. Several other patients have!

Our Dentistry Procedures Are Safe and Approved

The American Dental Association and the Food and Drug Administration have both approved nitrous oxide, oral sedation dentistry, and any medication you may be given. The type you'll get will be tailored to your health, procedure, and any insurance concerns.

We want to help you handle your dental needs as safely and comfortably as possible.

Our goal is to assist you in meeting your dental needs as safely and comfortably as possible. Make an appointment today for sedation dentistry, preventative care, and everything in between!

If you're thinking about making your teeth brighter, you'll want to know if the investment is worthwhile. It's understandable; no one wants to waste money on something that won't work or will vanish quickly.

But, when it comes to teeth whitening, the answer to the question "How long does teeth whitening last?" depends on the type of whitening product you use and why your teeth lost their pearly whites in the first place.

How Our Teeth Become Discolored

When we are babies, our first teeth are perfectly white and healthy. However, as we eat and drink and build unhealthy behaviors, those same minor changes discolor teeth and potentially trigger dental issues.

Many of these issues can be avoided by practicing good oral hygiene and scrubbing away organisms that would otherwise stain teeth. Some people, however, have genetic issues such as weak tooth enamel or other causes that make tooth discoloration more likely.

You are unhappy with your current shade and want to know how to whiten teeth in a way that lasts, whether it is due to your daily coffee, red wine, or soda habits or another reason. In this guide, we'll go over your options, how each teeth whitening procedure works, and how to get the best results.

Breaking Down Over the Counter Products

There are dozens of whitening products on the market that promise a bright smile right away. But finding one that works and lasts is a different story.

The first thing you should look for in a whitener is the American Dental Association seal of approval (ADA). If you use the product as directed, the level of whitening agent in the product should be safe for your tooth enamel and gums.

When you're doing it yourself, it's easy to overdo or misuse whitening toothpaste or other products. But since users don't always understand the risks, they believe it's no big deal to leave whitening strips or trays on for a little longer than the directions specify.

The Dangers of OTC Whitening Trays and Other Products

When you use a whitening product, the ingredient that actually removes the stains on your teeth is a chemical. And we've been taught since childhood not to put chemicals in our mouths!

The whitening chemicals used in the majority of products are ADA approved. The active ingredient is either hydrogen peroxide gel or carbamide peroxide. To protect your enamel and gums, make sure you follow the instructions exactly.

How OTC Whitening Options Work

A high-quality whitening agent, such as these peroxides, removes surface stains in small doses. Depending on the strength of the product, your teeth whitening results will appear within a few hours or a few days.

However, because they are only dealing with surface discoloration, the whiter appearance can fade quickly.

Surface Stains Leave Easy, But They Come Back Fast

If you want to keep your teeth white, you must be very careful about what you eat and drink. Your bad habits, such as drinking coffee and red wine or eating sugary foods, will have to go.

Otherwise, at-home treatments, such as whitening strips or a whitening gel tray, will only be effective for as long as you keep your teeth clean, avoid discoloring habits, and practice good oral hygiene to remove stains.

Having Your Teeth Professionally Whitened

A professional whitening treatment is another option. These are done in-office during a dentist visit. Because the dentist has access to higher-grade whiteners, they can penetrate beneath the surface stains and into the dentin. The ingredients must adhere to strict sourcing guidelines, so you can be confident that you're receiving the best professional whitening treatments available when you visit the dentist.

Dentin is the layer beneath your enamel that causes stains on your teeth. An in-office treatment is the way to go if you want whiter teeth that last.

What Happens in a Professional Teeth Whitening Session?

When you go to the cosmetic dentist for professional teeth whitening, you'll notice that you have a brighter smile in about an hour. Sure, it takes some time out of your day, but the longer the teeth whitening lasts compared to over-the-counter products makes this more efficient.

There are various options available depending on which dental clinic you visit to have your teeth whitened. Some dentists provide laser teeth whitening services, while others use special polishing agents to whiten your teeth.

Your dentist will discuss your whitening objectives with you. There are usually around eight different shades of white teeth to choose from. The work for your cosmetic teeth whitening begins once a plan is in place!

What to Expect With In-Office Whitening Treatments

Whatever option you choose, it all begins with a dental cleaning. This step ensures that your teeth are polished and smooth, and that they are ready for the bleaching agents.

Protecting your gums and sensitive tissue from the bleaching agent will be the next step. This is a standard procedure that prevents the whitener from coming into contact with your soft tissue.

The laser teeth whitening treatment is a unique procedure that involves the application of a concentrated bleaching gel to your teeth. The laser heats the gel, which whitens your teeth.

How Long Does Teeth Whitening Last With a Professional Treatment?

This method is the most effective at keeping your teeth white for the longest period of time. Peroxide levels are low in mouth rinses, whitening pens, and whitening toothpaste products. You must use them for an extended period of time before you see results, and they can harm your teeth and enamel.

Strips and trays work faster, but once you stop using them, the surface of your enamel begins to discolor again.

Keep in mind that certain medications can cause internal tooth discoloration. If this is the case for you, consult with your dentist about your options. Attempting to whiten teeth that have become discolored as a result of medication does not always work.

Schedule a Cosmetic Whitening Treatment Today

If you're unhappy with your smile, it can have an impact on your self-esteem and many of your relationships. Find out what your options are by contacting your dentist. You might discover that a professional teeth whitening treatment is less difficult than you thought!

Surely you've seen the television advertisements and social media posts. Whitening strips for teeth are the newest big influencer trend, but do they actually work?

It's all in the details, such as how you apply whitening strips and the color of your natural teeth.

With the information in this article, you can decide for yourself whether teeth-whitening strips are the best option for you.

Why Should You Whiten Your Teeth?

Teeth whitening products have exploded in popularity in the world of Instagram influencers.

Why do people use whitening kits and bleaching gels to achieve a whiter smile?

The majority of people state that they do so out of self-consciousness about their appearance. This is not solely for my advantage. Your self-esteem is inextricably tied to your perception of your appearance, which is a mental health problem.

If your teeth are yellow or brown, you may feel self-conscious about your smile. It's not surprising that people will pay for a whiter smile if it enhances their self-esteem.

Why Would You Want to Whiten Your Teeth?

Those seeking whiter teeth have a choice of options. Whichever method of teeth whitening you choose, at-home or professional, can be influenced by the reason for your selection.

Reasons for Teeth Whitening That Occur Frequently

There is no danger in experimenting with new products, whether they are whitening strips or something else. While you're whitening your teeth, check to see if you're on the right track to a healthy smile.

How Do Whitening Products Work?

Yes, those are precisely what you're looking for. To fully appreciate the efficacy of any whitening product, it is necessary to first grasp how it works.

Applying teeth-whitening strips or a gel to your teeth is a rather simple technique. These products contain hydrogen peroxide or carbamide peroxide as a component. They both accomplish the same task, regardless of which one you use.

You can penetrate the dentin layer of your teeth with hydrogen peroxide or carbamide peroxide.

The bleach removes stains from specific places. This effectively whitens teeth by covering stains.

Is It True That All Whitening Products Are the Same?

The fact that Crest Whitestrips and other products contain components comparable to those found in professional whiteners does not mean they are interchangeable.

While peroxide is the fundamental ingredient in all whiteners, this is where the similarities end.

Apart from the primary whitening agent, additional compounds may have an effect. For example, fluoride may be used by the dentist during a professional treatment to help prevent enamel deterioration.

Due to the inclusion of this additional component in the whitening mix, gum irritation and sensitive teeth issues linked with whitening strips such as Crest Whitestrips are alleviated.

Please Read These Warnings Before Using Whitening Strips or Products

Certain whitening strips include chlorine dioxide, a bleaching agent.

While this material is more successful than hydrogen peroxide in whitening teeth, it does represent a risk when used in teeth-whitening strips and other procedures.

Consult a respected dental clinic prior to utilizing any teeth whitening solution containing chlorine dioxide.

It's usually a good idea to see your dentist ahead of time to get the best results. Certain types of discoloration are more resistant to whitening strips or treatments.

Dental veneers cannot be whitened with over-the-counter whitening products, and they can exacerbate dental problems such as tooth decay and gum disease.

Alternatives to Whitening 

You can whiten your teeth in a variety of ways, including the following:

Teeth Whitening Side Effects

In either event, there are certain potential side effects associated with the use of tooth whitening strips or another treatment.

The more closely you adhere to the directions on the packaging, the less likely you are to have these adverse effects.

Even more so, if you have your teeth whitened by a dentist, the risk of adverse consequences is significantly decreased.

What to Expect When Having Your Teeth Whitened

Following the application of tooth whitening strips or another non-professional or over-the-counter remedy, you may notice the following:

If you have recently undergone dental work, consult your dentist before utilizing any teeth whitening solutions. If you have a potentially affected medical condition, you may additionally need to consult a medical practitioner.

Alternatives to Natural Whitening

While professional teeth whitening operations may not be an option for you due to your medical or dental history, there are still options available.

It is possible to preserve a healthy pair of pearly whites by abstaining from certain foods, beverages, and bad habits (such as smoking, drinking, or using drugs).

If you want to brighten them up further, use a toothpaste that contains sodium hydroxide or baking soda.

While these products may not instantly whiten teeth, they are generally safe for your gums and enamel.

What is the Safest Method for Getting a Whiter Smile?

If you are serious about getting a white, sparkling smile, the dentist is the best place to begin. Your natural teeth can be safely whitened with the assistance of expert teeth whitening methods.

Certain dental practices offer customized take-home teeth whitening kits.

Additionally, an in-office treatment is offered that utilizes professional-grade chemicals and one-of-a-kind devices to rapidly improve the color of your teeth.

Schedule Your Smile Makeover Appointment Today

Due to prior dental work, are you unable to use an at-home teeth whitening kit? Take no chances when it comes to commemorating a momentous occasion.

Make an appointment with your dentist when you're ready to have the smile of a movie star.

They use tooth-whitening procedures that are safe, quick, and effective.

The risk associated with over-the-counter whitening strips is not worth it. Consult a dental specialist if you want an Instagram-worthy smile!

Anyone who has ever had a sensitive tooth knows how uncomfortable it is to be in agony. Others may perceive you as being preoccupied with little stuff. That is not what you want. You can't ignore the cold's discomfort and sensitivity until it goes away.

This might happen when a particular food, such as ice cream, comes into unexpected touch with your teeth. However, if you do this repeatedly, your teeth may get sensitive.

Your Tooth Sensitivity and You

If your teeth are sensitive to cold, they will most certainly feel the same way when hot items come into contact with them. Sensitive teeth might be irritated by cold air and hot liquids. What are your options for entertainment while you wait for your appointment?

Recognize what is causing your teeth to be uncomfortable in the first place. Then you can figure out which tooth sensitivity remedy is best for you.

Factors Contributing to Tooth Sensitivity

Remember that when you have sensitive teeth, there is always a reason for the discomfort. Yes, cold beverages or acidic foods can be the "cause" of pain right away. There is a serious problem with your oral health that has to be addressed beneath the surface.

If you attend the dentist as soon as possible, you may be able to resolve the problem before it causes further damage. This means that the type of dental treatment you need will be determined by the source of your teeth's sensitivity.

Then How Do You Determine If You Have Sensitive Teeth?

Individuals with sensitive teeth report feeling a sharp or severe pain when sipping cold or hot beverages. It is not essential to occur in a single site because it might occur in a range of locations. The anguish becomes more acute at times, as if a knife has been pushed into your head. As a result, the phrase "brain freeze" came into use.

It's not a pleasant experience.

If you have a tooth that is sensitive to cold or heat, a terrible toothache might be excruciatingly painful. As a result, in order to avoid pain, you must first grasp what is going on.

The Most Common Causes of Sensitive Teeth

Your tooth has most likely degraded over time. When you brush your teeth, you are removing the enamel, which is the outer coating of your teeth. This is the layer of protection that covers your nerve endings.

The enamel on the outer surface of the teeth begins to erode as teeth rot, gums recede, and other causes occur. This layer already protects your teeth when they are healthy. However, when your teeth's dentin deteriorates, the surface of your teeth begins to wear away. Your teeth will become more sensitive to heat and cold as a result.

Dentin has little hollow tubes or canals. These tiny tubes transport heat and cold into the tooth. Dentin loss causes teeth to become more sensitive, which makes them painful. What causes the dentin to start separating?

Your teeth may be sensitive to heat and cold due to a variety of circumstances, including the following:

cavities

In the early stages of tooth deterioration

Bruxism (teeth gnashing)

Periodontal disease that is untreated

Gum tissue infection causes receding gums and tooth loss.

Using a toothbrush with hard bristles or goods that are not ADA-approved

omitting to avoid acidic foods

A dental injury, such as a cracked tooth,

There are many potential causes of sensitive teeth, but these are the most common. It could also be attributable to how you spend your time on a daily basis. If you smoke and do not clean your teeth correctly, you run the risk of having sensitive dentin, gum disease, and tooth enamel loss.

Tooth Sensitivity Treatment

When you first notice cold sensitivity or other symptoms, there are a few things you can try at home to see if they help.

The first thing you should do, if you don't already have one, is get a soft-bristled brush. Avoid using alcohol-containing whitening toothpaste or mouthwash. These can be too strong and cause tooth pain. If these changes do not help, you should look for signs that you are grinding your teeth while sleeping.

This will harm both your teeth and your jaw. Inexplicably, a headache, neck pain, or shoulder pain may occur.

Treatment for Bruxism

If you suspect you are grinding your teeth, make an appointment with your dentist right away. This could be related to stress, or it could be because you need medical attention for a sleeping disorder. The dentist's office can help you protect your enamel by offering mouthguards that completely cover your teeth.

Meanwhile, your doctor can help you figure out how to stop grinding your teeth, a condition known as bruxism. Is there anything that makes you grind your teeth or clench your jaw at night? It could be dangerous if you don't know what that object is.

There are numerous simple ways to treat a sensitive tooth.

The amount of dental work required to restore a sensitive tooth depends on the reason for the sensitivity and how long the tooth has been broken down.

The first step is to protect oneself. Your dentist can help you modify your dental hygiene routines to minimize further damage. To begin, avoid meals and beverages high in acid and sugar, which are known to induce tooth decay.

If it doesn't work, you can use desensitizing toothpaste to brush your teeth on a daily basis. Floss and mouthwash can also aid in the protection of your teeth and gum line. If your gums recede and you continue to feel chilly and hot, it's time to move on to the next stage.

Strengthening of the Enamel

The enamel protects your roots and keeps them from coming into contact with your teeth's sore nerve ends. A fluoride gel can be used to lessen sensitivity. This product, when used on a daily basis, strengthens your tooth enamel and repairs the layer of protection that has been weakened on your teeth. This can be done at work during business hours or at home using specialist products, and it can be done in any scenario.

Root Canal Treatment

Dental sensitivity caused by a tooth hole can be treated with a sealant. However, if you have gum disease, receding gums, or visible tooth roots, a root canal may be necessary.

This is a technique for removing an infection from the pulp of your teeth. The dentist will place a crown to disguise the visible roots after cleaning the gum line and teeth.

What Caused Your Teeth to Become Sensitive? We Can Help.

When your teeth become sensitive, make an appointment with your dentist. A trip to the dentist is in order if your gum line is receding or your teeth are eroding. We can help you achieve or maintain optimal oral health by contacting our office right now.

You might believe that skipping a tooth brushing now and again won't harm you.

You shouldn't have any severe dental problems if you forget to push your teeth every now and again. It's best not to make this a habit, though. Brushing and flossing twice a day isn't just a suggestion; it helps to reduce plaque buildup and tooth decay.

Beyond a toothache or cavity, your dental health can cause a range of health problems.

Issues with Dental Health

Plaque is prevented by brushing and flossing your teeth properly. Plaque is responsible for a wide range of dental issues and is nearly invisible to the untrained eye in its early stages.

Cavities 

Cavity-causing bacteria reside in plaque, which can pierce the protective enamel of your teeth.

Cavities can cause dental infections and, in the worst-case scenario, tooth loss if left untreated. Good news, right? Brushing and flossing regularly can help to prevent cavities.

Gingivitis

Gingivitis, a type of gum disease, can be exacerbated by plaque. Microorganisms included in plaque irritate and inflame the gums. Gums become red, sensitive, and bleed readily. Gingivitis can cause your gums to recede, resulting in tooth loss.

Periodontitis

Periodontitis is preceded by gingivitis, much like cavities are preceded by plaque. The teeth-supporting bones are affected by this dangerous bone infection. The most common cause of tooth loss is periodontitis.

Plaque take how long to build?

Dental health is influenced by genetics. It can be discouraging to see a friend who rarely brushes get by with no cavities while you brush often and have thinner enamel.

Brushing is necessary for everyone, even if genetics plays a role in your dental health. Brushing and flossing, without a doubt, help to minimize plaque buildup, which in turn helps to prevent other dental problems.

Here's what happens if you don't practice appropriate hygiene for various periods of time:

One day without brushing: 

Plaque begins as a sticky substance that can be easily removed with a good brushing practice; but, the longer we keep it on our teeth, the more difficult it becomes to remove. Plaque begins to eat away at your dentin within 48 hours of contact. Tartar forms as plaque hardens, and it must be scraped out by a specialist.

One week without brushing: 

Your tooth enamel continues to deteriorate after one week. The plaque that hasn't been removed will foster unpleasant breath. Your teeth will be sticky, not smooth, as they would be if they were clean.

You will have a higher risk of developing cavities if you do not clean your teeth for one week. Plaque may also irritate your gums, producing pain and discomfort.

Continued improper brushing habits: 

If you continue to clean your teeth seldom or clumsily, you will most likely develop major dental issues within a year. You'll have to deal with cavities, gingivitis, and tartar accumulation.

Infection or high blood pressure can be caused by poor tooth hygiene.

Oral Hygiene

Various people have different perspectives on what constitutes good oral hygiene. The ADA's suggestions are a helpful point of reference. The American Dental Association has these tips for daily tooth care:

Brush

To avoid cavities, brush your teeth twice a day with fluoride toothpaste. Brush for at least 2 minutes to ensure that all plaque is removed.

If you use too much pressure, your gums will become irritated.

Floss

Flossing is recommended at least once a day. Consider alternatives such as water flossing if flossing isn't your thing. Flossing is a difficult habit to develop, but it has a significant impact on your oral health.

Visit Your Dentist

Contact your dentist to schedule an appointment. At least once every six months, you should visit your dentist.

Some dentists may recommend that you see them more often. This is especially true if you've had cavities in the past, have gum disease, or are at risk of getting gum disease.

Invest in the right tools

Using an electric toothbrush instead of a manual toothbrush can improve your dental hygiene significantly. With their timed settings, electric toothbrushes promote optimum brushing length and are more successful at removing plaque.

If you don't want to spend the money on an electric toothbrush, make sure to brush in circular motions with a soft bristle brush.

Maintain a Healthy Diet

A well-balanced diet is essential. Eating plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables, as well as limiting high-sugar foods, can help to prevent dental disease.

Dental Cleanings & Checkups

Don't get too worked up if you forget to wash your teeth now and again.

However, it's important to remember that brushing your teeth at least twice a day, flossing once a day, and seeing your dentist at least twice a year are all important for your general oral health.

Your teeth will remain healthy if you have regular dental examinations. Cavities and gum disease are easier to cure and have a healthy mouth if they are caught early. If found early enough, some cavities don't even require fillings.

Plaque and tartar can be removed by dental cleanings. If you want to improve your appearance, professional teeth whitening is always a possibility.

The past two years have shown us how essential overall wellness is to our security. But part of having a healthy immune system depends on how your dental hygiene, too. If your teeth and gums aren't healthy, they, along with the rest of your body, pay the price.

Proper dental care has been a part of our lives for thousands of years. We can date dental tools all the way back to the beginning of recorded civilization with the Ancient Egyptians. They knew the importance of healthy teeth, so they used a basic tool called a chewstick. Chewsticks had a frayed edge on one side to act like a brush, and a point on the other side to be used as a toothpick.

Today, our dental tools are a bit more sophisticated and comfortable. Our soft bristles don't leave splinters in our mouths, and floss and toothpicks come in flavors, too! But gum disease remains a leading cause of receding gums, decayed enamel, and tooth loss.

At Emerald Coast Dentistry, we want to help you recognize the signs of early gum diseases like gingivitis and periodontitis and understand the consequences. On top of dental problems, gum disease can lead to chronic health conditions like cardiovascular disease. To prevent gingivitis and the issues that stem from it, we've put together this guide about gingivitis vs periodontitis and how to stop both in their tracks.

The Facts You Need to Know About Gum Disease

Microorganisms like bacteria live in dark, moist areas. This makes our mouths the ideal breeding zone for them to grow and thrive. Typically, they're not harmless, as long as we can keep them under control. That's where brushing and flossing every day come into play. If you miss a brushing, those little creatures take it as an opportunity to spread further into your mouth.

With the right oral health routine used consistently and regular dental visits, you can keep control of bacteria and plaque buildup before it damages your gum and enamel. Both of these steps are important in order to prevent cavities and gum disease. Otherwise, it's likely that you'll end up with a stage of gum disease called gingivitis.

When bacteria get under the gums, gingivitis is the result, but it can be reversed if caught early. But if it's left untreated, it will become periodontal disease.

Two Types of Gum Disease You Need to Know

The two types of gum disease are the mild form, gingivitis, and its more severe counterpart, periodontitis. Each type of gum disease begins as excess plaque and tartar buildup, but over time, this minor issue becomes damaging. As plaque and tartar form a sticky film, they erode your enamel, spreading under your gums to create swelling and infection.

While in the early stages of gingivitis, you can use at-home care to reverse the problem. The gum disease called periodontitis is another story. However, stopping gum disease early can be hard because not all gingivitis shows symptoms. Just in case, regular dental checkups are your failsafe. They help you catch gum disease gingivitis and other problems early.

On your own, to avoid periodontal disease, you can monitor your gum health. Check your gums and teeth when you brush and floss, and be on the alert for bleeding or swelling. If you notice anything unusual, you could have early gingivitis.

Plaque and tartar buildup on the teeth, inflammation of the gum line, and a little extra bleeding are signs that you need to up your oral hygiene care. When you only have gum inflammation and other mild signs, you can still stop gingivitis from spreading into a more severe form.

Reversing Gingivitis

As the mildest form of gum disease, gingivitis can be reversed. As long as you're brushing and flossing correctly and using the right techniques, you'll see an improvement. However, if you haven't had a cleaning in a while, make an appointment with East Valley Dental Care and start scheduling your regular dental checkups.

A dental exam is an essential part of preventative oral health care. The hygienist gives you a professional cleaning, and the dentist evaluates your oral health for any early-onset signs. Gum disease and things like cancer can be caught before they're too far gone to be fixed. When gingivitis is left untreated, it spreads into serious gum infections. These can result in bone loss and other issues if your chronic inflammatory response is overwhelmed.

What is Periodontitis?

A serious gum infection, periodontitis progresses in stages. Once periodontitis develops, you must have professional help. Only a dentist and your doctor can minimize how far the infection spreads through your bloodstream and damages the other organs. Your body's immune system fights the infection, but it can only do so much on its own. A poor diet and nutrition make it harder for the system to do its job, too.

To prevent this form of gum disease, you have to stop it while it's still mild. Periodontal disease progresses from unchecked gingivitis. When it does, the periodontium (bone and tissue that connect to your jaw) weakens. As the harmful bacteria get under the gum line, they form pockets of infection, becoming aggressive periodontitis.

Over time, untreated periodontitis can cause other health problems, like cardiovascular disease. Don't take a chance that the infection spreads. Get regular dental care and use proper oral care as soon as possible.

Could You Have Periodontal Disease?

Maybe you're concerned that you've bypassed gingivitis and moved into something more severe. Do you have bleeding gums and sensitive teeth? Have they been that way for a while? In the early stage of gum disease, better care will show improvement fast. At the stage of early periodontitis, you'll need a little more help.

How do you know if you have periodontal disease? You'll notice a spread of plaque and bacterial growth along with your teeth and gum line. With advanced gum disease, there's persistent unpleasant breath, bright red gums that easily bleed, and very sensitive teeth. These symptoms turn into weak gums, which will lead to tooth loss.

Healthy gum tissue is necessary to hold your teeth at the root. When the connective tissue weakens, you end up with poor tooth alignment, and these misaligned teeth result in loose teeth.

Chronic periodontitis moves beyond the teeth and gums, spreading risk factors throughout your body. Working with your doctor and dentist helps keep the spread control. Without regular, consistent care, you could end up with lost bone in the mouth and many other serious health issues.

Treating Periodontal Disease

When you develop gingivitis and it turns into periodontitis, the first thing you need is a better oral hygiene routine. Head to the dentist for your cleaning, and talk to them about how you can do more at home.

From there, if the problem needs a little boost to get you started, your dentist may suggest antibiotics and a procedure called root planing. In this technique, special tools are used to get under the gum line, where gums collect debris that is hard to get rid of without help. The procedure will clean out the infection, leaving you with healthier gums.

If that doesn't work, gum disease surgery may be necessary. This surgical treatment is used when your receding gums and infection have spread too far for antibiotics and a planing to help. It's minorly invasive - the dentist opens up the infected soft tissue, removes the infection in the swollen gums, and sews the gum tissue back together. It's up to you to upgrade your poor oral hygiene to something that keeps your newly healthy gums and teeth in good shape.

Treating Gum Disease Before it Happens

Preventative care is key. Regular visits to East Valley Dental Care can help you prevent cavities, gingivitis, and more severe gum disease. We all need a thorough professional dental cleaning twice a year (or as recommended), and a little boost to our at-home care can only help our teeth and gums.

With proper oral hygiene, you can prevent gum disease before the plaque spreads. Gingivitis and periodontitis can be avoided, but if gingivitis progresses, we're here to help you fight back! East Valley Dental Care, you, and a thorough dental cleaning are all you need to prevent gingivitis and get rid of periodontal diseases. See your dentist regularly for preventative care now so you're not forced to go later as you're fighting infections.

Turn on the TV or look on social media today and you’ll see people with perfect, even smiles that are so white they’re blinding. This perspective can cause anyone with less-than-ideal teeth to feel insecure. It’s normal, especially when our smiles are often the first things seen by others when we meet.

You wouldn’t be quite as self-conscious if you knew how many of those Insta-influencer smiles were filtered, or how many Hollywood celebs had cosmetic dental procedures. There’s nothing wrong with either of these scenarios; it simply shows that you, too, could have the “ideal” smile if you wanted it.

All you need to do is head to Bayly Dental. Our expert professionals can take care of every dental concern you have, including cosmetic procedures.

Scientific innovations in dentistry have resulted in appliances and treatments like braces, whitening procedures, and veneers. These techniques and many more are available at Bayly Dental. For individuals with “flawed” smiles, veneers are one of the most popular methods around.

Don’t be fooled by the size when you see them. Veneers may be tiny, but these little shells pack a mighty punch. They’re so versatile, they’re able to hide things like:

You might wonder how can something so minuscule can do so much. The key is in the material that we use to make a veneer.

Want to learn more about these exciting dental accessories? Keep reading for the details!

The History of Veneers

Veneers are a type of dental accessory that was invented back in 1928. They’ve come a long way since their inception. In short, a veneer is a wafer-thin shell that is designed to conceal multiple kinds of flaws in an individual tooth. 

They were originally created for celebrities as a way to hide what producers considered to be imperfections in the big-screen smiles. Since the concealment was only necessary for the length of a scene shooting, the veneer only had to last an hour or two. 

But the idea “stuck,” and for decades, researchers would try to find a way to get the shell to stay on a tooth permanently.

 In the ‘80s, the idea of dental etching and a stronger adhesive agent appeared. Veneers could stay on for years instead of weeks, giving us the veneers we have today. This evolution of adhesion is where the term “veneer” went from “temporary” to “permanent.” 

More About Veneers

Dentists often recommend veneers when a patient comes in unhappy with certain aspects of their smile. If you’re considering this dental treatment as your next health investment, you have a couple of decisions to make. This guide gives you the details about each type of veneer so you can make an informed choice.

To start with, the veneers of today are a culmination of decades of advances in technology. That means there is no bad choice. You have two materials to pick from, and both of them will conceal the flaw in your smile and blend in naturally.

The two best, most biologically and aesthetically natural materials that are used to create veneers are composite resin and porcelain. Which one you want your veneer made from is up to you.

When you use a professional dental office like Bayly Dental, the veneer you get will look and feel like the rest of your teeth. We use high-quality ingredients and equipment to sculpt, shape, and color the material to match the surrounding ones. The final result is a transformed smile you’ll fall in love with instantly.

However, you do have to choose between composite resin and porcelain. The material that’s right for you depends on your lifestyle and what you want to get from these dental correctors.

Which Veneer Type is Best for You?

Either veneer type you choose will look similar, and the process of having them applied is almost the same, too. 

However, the differences that are in each material may play a big factor in your decision. We’ll begin by taking you from start to finish of having a veneer applied and walk you through each choice along the way.

First, you’ll schedule an appointment to talk to the dentist about which parts of your smile you want to cover up. When you both decide that veneers are the next step, the dentist will make an impression of your teeth with a mold. That mold is used to design your veneer. 

Custom or Standard?

Here’s your first choice. Will you have customized or standard veneers made? 

If you opt for standard veneers, you don’t have to worry about choosing the material. These are always composite resin. It’s a cheaper material, so it’s easier to keep on hand in the office. Composite resin has a lot of advantages, primarily the speed. If you decide on the non-customized composite resin veneer, it may be placed as early as the first visit. 

Non-customized composite resin veneers are the go-to choice for people who want to conceal a flaw fast, such as when they’ve cracked a front tooth. It’s also perfect for those on a tight budget.

If you decide to go with customized composite resin or porcelain, the wait time could be a week or a little longer. The benefit of customizing, though, is that your veneer will be identical to the color and shape of your natural teeth.

What’s the Lifespan?

When you decide to make an investment in veneers, you’ll have questions like, “How long do veneers last on front teeth,” and “Are veneers permanent?” Feel free to ask anything you’re wondering. This guide should clarify many of those queries before you get to the office. 

As we mentioned, the term “temporary veneers” came from the original designs. We still use a form of them for emergency situations. These can last up to ten days or so. On the other hand, “permanent” veneers have a lifespan that can last closer to 15 years with regular maintenance and care.

If the top factor in your veneers is to have it placed and then never worry about, porcelain is the best option. Porcelain is the closest material to the natural tooth as you can get and still be able to sculpt and color it. It resembles human enamel almost perfectly.

Consider Your Lifestyle Habits Next

Your goal is to have a veneer that lasts as long as possible. Along the way, your lifestyle habits could affect the overall quality, though. 

For example, let’s consider your daily habits. Enamel can stain, and so can veneers. Habits that discolor your teeth can do the same thing to veneers over time. 

People who have regular coffee, tea, or soda drinking habits should opt for porcelain if they want to avoid staining their veneers. Tobacco users should also go with this material. Porcelain can still become discolored, but it’s much more difficult. 

What hobbies or careers do you have? Porcelain is a better choice for anyone who has regular high-impact physical contact, like what you’d get in many sports or certain jobs. The material has a longer natural lifespan of 10-15 years instead of 5-10 with composite resin. Plus, it’s more resistant to damage, so people with high-impact lifestyles prefer porcelain.

Any veneer can loosen or crack with too much pressure or wear and tear. Repairing veneers is simple if you catch it early enough.

Bayly Dental Can Help You Care for Your Smile

At Bayly Dental, we’ll work with you to customize an individual plan that fits your needs and your budget. Contact us now to get started on the road to that Hollywood smile of your dreams!

Most people admit that the first thing they notice when they meet someone is their smile. Knowing this is true makes individuals without “perfect” teeth feel insecure. But just because your smile isn’t dazzlingly white doesn’t mean you’re stuck with it.

With today’s technologically advanced methods, you have lots of options to whiten your teeth. However, you don't want to entrust your teeth's care to any product. The safest whitening technique is an in-office professional teeth whitening service.

At Bayly Dental, we use only the best ingredients and state-of-the-art equipment to whiten your teeth. Treatments in our office are simple and fast, so you can get back to your day quickly. 

But preparing for your teeth whitening session is important. This guide will teach you what to expect and how to keep your newly lightened teeth that way for a long time!

Before You Go to Your Whitening Session

There isn’t a lot you have to do to get ready for your appointment. However, like any other cosmetic procedure, you do need an exam before jumping into a whitening treatment. 

If you haven’t done so already, be sure to schedule a regular office checkup. This gives the dentist the chance to make sure your teeth and gums are in good shape. Although the procedure is gentle, your gums need to be healthy enough to handle the steps in the whitening treatment and the bleaching agent.

When you have problems like sensitive teeth, any whitening product can make them worse. It’s not one of those things you can ignore and hope it goes away. The sensitivity is a warning sign that means there’s an underlying issue somewhere that has to be addressed. 

Sensitive teeth are usually caused by things like:

At Bayly Dental, we’ll catch any problems in your oral health before your whitening treatment. Together, we will make a plan to address them, and get you on your way to the white smile you’ve been dreaming of.

Once you’re cleared and scheduled for a whitening visit, though, all you need to do is be sure you eat at least half an hour before your visit. Brush your teeth after your meal, and head on over to our office!

During Your Whitening Session

After you get checked in and settled in our chair, you’ll start your visit with a professional cleaning. This gets rid of any plaque and tartar that have hardened on your teeth so we have fresh, clean enamel to work with.

With the cleaning over with, the hygienist will keep your mouth dry by placing some gauze in it. Your lips, gums, and teeth have sensitive tissue that the whitening agent could irritate. In order to prevent this, retractors are inserted into your mouth. 

The retractors keep the whitening agent from touching any of the sensitive tissues. The gel won’t hurt anything it touches, but we'd all rather avoid the potential irritation.

Next, your gums are brushed with a protective covering, and then the whitening gel is applied to the enamel of your teeth. The agent interacts with the dentin in your teeth. Dentin is the porous layer that determines the color of each tooth. When these pores expand, the whitener can get inside the dentin and lighten the shade.

To help the whitening agent work faster, a special light is shone over your teeth. This light activates the gel, making it more effective so you get results quickly. 

The whole process usually takes about an hour, during which time you can relax. There’s no pain or discomfort, and when it’s all done, you have a new, improved smile!

After Your Whitening Session

When you leave our office, you can go straight back into your day without any delay. The only restrictions are in the food and drink you eat for the first 48 hours. The dentist will talk to you about how to make sure your white smile stays white! 

Remember, the dentin in your teeth is still open for the next couple of days. You don’t want to invite any discoloration to happen again by eating and drinking food that will stain. Make sure you stay away from any colorful or acidic food and beverages. 

Some foods are notorious for staining everything they come into contact with, including your teeth. Spaghetti sauce, dark wines, coffee, and tea are definite no-nos. After 48 hours, you can go back to your normal diet.

You might also notice a little sensitivity in your teeth after your professional whitening session. This is a common short-term side effect. For most people, it doesn’t last longer than two or three days. If you notice it continuing after that, contact our office. To limit the problem, you can use special toothpaste made for reducing teeth sensitivity.

Keep Your Teeth Whiter Longer

The better your oral hygiene routine is, the longer you’ll keep your newly white teeth. Brush your teeth at least twice a day, floss daily, and use mouthwash. Good cleaning habits keep the tartar and plaque away and prevent food and drink stains from building up.

Schedule regular checkups with Bayly Dental for your cleanings. Consistent visits give your dentist the chance to catch problems early before they become big issues.

You can also use reputable teeth whitening toothpaste after your treatment. Talk to your dentist about the brands that are recommended by the American Dental Association. A touch-up professional whitening treatment can be done once or twice a year if you want to keep those pearly whites shining strong.

Ready to schedule your professional teeth whitening service? Contact our office at Bayly Dental to get the process started! Our friendly office staff is ready to answer all your questions and make your whitening treatment appointment today. You’ll be on your way to a whiter smile that you’re proud to show off!

Until recently, the idea of getting implants to replace missing or decayed teeth has been a difficult decision for most people. Because the process was so complex, often taking months to complete in addition to being very costly, many individuals chose not to go this route. Instead, they dealt with the insecurities of having gaps in their smile.

But now, with same day dental implants, much of the problems that are part of traditional implants disappear. 

Can dental implants be done in one day? When you work with us, the answer is yes, absolutely!

Ready to learn more about these wonders of dental technology? This guide will tell you everything you need to know about the newest implant innovation known as one day dental implants.

How to Get Full Dental Implants in One Day

Traditionally, the path to getting dental implants took a long way around from start to finish. First, any damaged teeth would need to be extracted, and that extraction site would have to heal, taking weeks or months.

Then, the implant would be surgically placed into the jawline. Before the crowns could be placed (the actual “tooth” part), the implant would need to fuse to the jaw in a process called osseointegration. This, again, could take anywhere from weeks to months, depending on your body and how well it accepted the implants.

Finally, the crowns would be attached to the implant, and you’d have to have them adjusted until they fit naturally. The whole journey could take upwards of a year before your new teeth were perfected. This lengthy, complicated process was enough to deter a lot of people, and when you add the office visit for each part, the expenses added up.

We are always paying attention to the newest innovations in dentistry, and he’s proud to be able to offer same day implants. The procedure is an investment in your health that you don’t have to think twice about. In one visit, you can get rid of any unsightly problems in your mouth and walk away with a new, beautiful smile.

One Day Dental Implants vs Traditional Implants

There’s nothing wrong with traditional implants. In fact, if you aren’t a candidate for one day dental implants, you should get started on the traditional path now. That way, you get your healthier smile as soon as possible.

But if you are a candidate for denture implants in one day, this is what you can expect:

Even with these benefits, same day implants aren’t for everyone. If you’re trying to decide between traditional and same day implants, consider the advantages and disadvantages of each.

Pros and Cons of Traditional and Same Day Dental Implants

Immediate dental implants are newer, but there is a lot of research behind them. They have a comparable success rate to traditional implants and a better recovery time.

Additionally, since there are fewer procedures involved in the process, there is less damage to your gums and soft tissue. The immediate placement of the implant means there’s also less chance of complications like an infection to set in.

Everything done at one time generally results in an easier osseointegration process. Your body is healing and fusing the implant to the jaw bone instead of dealing with one problem at a time. 

However, because you’re having multiple procedures performed in one visit, there’s usually more post-procedure discomfort and swelling. That’s why your body has to be in good enough shape to be a candidate for this technique.

Both procedures carry a risk of bone loss with them, but this risk is slightly higher with same day implants. When the jaw bone begins to erode, it can cause a shift in your implants. They’ll have to be adjusted over time.

The other question is of traditional versus same day dental implant cost. You might be surprised to see that same day implants can be less expensive. This is because there’s more time in the chair up front, but fewer office visits to add up in time and cost.

Between the improved recovery time and convenience of fewer office visits, plus having your teeth the same day as your visit, same day dental implants might be your preference. The next step is to see if you’re a candidate for the procedure. 

If you are, then you can talk to your insurance or the office staff about the same day teeth implants cost before you make your final decision.

Are You a Same Day Dental Implant Candidate?

If you think same day dental implants sound like what you’ve been looking for, call the office and schedule a consultation! 

You’ll likely be approved for the procedure if:

However, don’t automatically assume you’re not going to qualify. During your appointment we will review your medical history, and he may be able to offer suggestions to handle any complications. He may also have other alternatives you don’t know about.

To see if you’re able to benefit from same day dental implants, contact our office and make an appointment. Our friendly, expert staff are ready to answer any questions you have and help you get on the right path to having the smile you deserve.

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Monday: 1 p.m. – 8p.m.
Tuesday: 11 a.m.- 6p.m.
Wednesday: Closed.
Thursday: Closed.
Friday: 8 a.m.- 3 p.m.
Saturday: 9a.m.- 2p.m.


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